Guard duty in the Valley

When my great, great grandfather Union Pvt. Arthur Bull arrived in the Shenandoah Valley with his unit in October 1864, the Union command considered the Valley Campaign to be essentially over.

Union cavalry had burned crops, removed livestock and leveled barns and buildings to deprive Confederate forces of food, shelter and supplies — and the Confederates had not advanced.

Aug. 2014: Union encampment on Governors Island, N.Y.
Aug. 2014: Union encampment on Governors Island, N.Y. When not on guard or picket duty in the Shenandoah Valley, my ancestor Arthur Bull and his 6th NY Heavy Artillery unit passed time in camp in early October 1864.  Photo by Molly Charboneau

So in early October, Arthur and his regiment — the 6th New York Heavy Artillery — primarily played a supportive role.

They escorted Union supply trains and encamped between stints of guard or picket duty — forming part of the federal lines that ranged across the Valley to prevent the Confederates from again menacing Washington, D.C.

My ancestor’s comrade-in-arms Sgt. William Thistleton described their activities in his diary and noted the return of their 6th NYHA commander:

Oct. 10th We started at sun-rise this morning with the supply train for Winchester arrived and halted at 8 P.M. one mile south of town. Oct. 11th Started at 7 a.m. and arrived at Middletown at 3 P.M. and camped this is a little town with a fine country around it remained here on the 12th inst.

Oct. 13th Off again at 7 a.m. for front royal about 12 miles distant arrived at 2 p.m. and found the rest of the division here pitched our tents and supposed we were going to stay here for a few days. Compy”I” on Picket about 1 1/2 miles from the camp in the afternoon the cavalry brought in a large drove of cattle, horses, mules, sheep and swine which they had confiscated, our boys had plenty of mutton.

Oct. 14th…Col. J. Howard Kitching joined us today he was home on leave of absence when we left Washington he brought with him 600 men for different regiments of Sheridans Army recruits and convalesents [sic].

While in camp, Union combatants — my ancestor among them — were also busy casting their absentee ballots in advance of the 8 Nov. 1864 presidential election and urging family and friends back home to get to the polls.

Pres. Abraham Lincoln’s re-election was in doubt after the high loss of life during the Overland Campaign with no clear Union victory. But the fall of Atlanta to Union forces in September bolstered the civilian electorate in the North — and Union soldiers’ votes and support would be crucial in the first wartime election since 1812.

On 15 October, wrote Sgt. Thistleton, the 6th NYHA encamped near Cedar Creek about one mile closer to the front and settled in.

We had good time in the camp foraging every day and plenty of chickens and vegetables the men would draw rations and threw them away except coffee and sugar.

All seemed relatively quiet, until one morning when my ancestor’s regiment woke to sharp gunfire from their pickets.

Then suddenly — out of a nebulous fog — Confederate cavalry came charging through their camp.

© 2014 Molly Charboneau. All rights reserved. 


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Freedom and safe haven

The Union Army in which my ancestor Pvt. Arthur Bull served was much more than a fighting force. It was a symbol of freedom and a tangible safe haven for emancipated African Americans and anti-slavery non-combatants who were fleeing the Confederates.

May 2014: 23rd Infantry Regiment USCT re-enactors at Spotsylvania Court House. More than just a fighting force, the Union Army was a symbol of freedom and a safe haven for African Americans and anti-slavery non-combatants who were fleeing the Confederates. Photo: Libary of Congress
May 2014: 23rd Infantry Regiment USCT re-enactors, Spotsylvania Court House, Va. The Union Army was a symbol of freedom and a safe haven for emancipated African Americans and anti-slavery non-combatants who were fleeing the Confederates. Photo by Molly Charboneau

During the Shenandoah Valley Campaign, many civilians were evacuated north to safety by Union troops. My great, great grandfather — part of the 6th New York Heavy Artillery — likely experienced the social impact of the federal army while he was on duty in the Valley.

On 2 Oct. 1864 when his unit was stationed in Harrisonburg, Va., one of Arthur’s fellow soldiers — Sgt. William Thistleton — wrote in his diary about the arrival of a train from the front “laden” with religious pacifists and freed African Americans.

[T]he majority of the former were of a set called “Dunkers” a species of the Quaker persuasion some of them had been living in the hills and woods for a month past hiding from the relentless conscription of the Davis government.

The German Baptist Brethren — known as Dunkers for their full-immersion baptisms — opposed slavery and refused military service. Now that Civil War combat had come to the Valley, they were moving out of harm’s way.

Sgt. Thistleton also wrote about the determination of the emancipated African Americans to go north.

[T]heir soul [sic] aim and object seemed to be to escaped [sic] from the rebels dominion…and considered the Potomac river their “Jordan’s” [sic] and the country north of it their Promised land.

As the Civil War progressed, hundreds of thousands of African American workers left the slaveholders’ plantations, workshops, kitchens and nurseries in what W.E.B. Du Bois characterized as a “general strike” — many joining the Union Army if they were able to (more than 100,000 altogether by the end of the war) or seeking its protection if they were not.

These particular migrants had passed through the Shenandoah Valley where the Union Army was destroying the Confederate breadbasket, wrote Sgt. Thistleton.

[T]he Cavalry were engaged to day in burning all of the barns, granaries and stacks they could find the men were allowed to forage and we fared very well every day.

The Burning took a heavy toll on the Valley in October 1864. But in the process of clearing slavery’s defenders from the land, the Union Army’s purifying fire — much like a naturally-occurring conflagration — left fertile space in its wake, opening the way for new post-war social, political and economic growth.

© 2014 Molly Charboneau. All rights reserved.


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Marching on

Aug. 2014: Union reenactors on Governors Island, N.Y. On 23 Sept. 1864 my ancestor Arthur Bull and his unit left Washington’s forts for the front. They were marching on to the Shenandoah Valley. Photo by Molly Charboneau.

In late September 1864, my great, great grandfather Union Pvt. Arthur Bull departed from the forts of Washington, D.C. with his unit and headed back to the battlefront.

My ancestor’s fellow combatants from the 6th New York Heavy Artillery logged their progress — Sgt. William Thistleton in his diary and Pvt. Orson L. Reynolds, a new recruit, in letters to his wife.

On 24 Sept. the regiment debarked from Boston and Ohio Rail cars at Sandy Hook, Md. They crossed the Potomac, marched through Harper’s Ferry — scene of the 1859 anti-slavery raid organized by abolitionist John Brown — and camped until 27 Sept. at Bolivar Heights, Va.

There they were combined with the 10th NYHA into the 2nd Brigade Provisional Division under Col. J. Howard Kitching. In a diary entry, Sgt. Thistleton captured the mood:

Sept. 27th Ordered to leave at 8 a.m. but did not get off until 4 p.m. we were engaged in guarding the supply train going out to Gen. Sheridan’s Army at Harrisburg halted at 9 p.m. near Charlestown for the night, Charlestown is a small place but has gained some celebrity as being the scene of the execution of John Brown whose soul is a marching on.

Yes, marching on with these Union soldiers — my great, great grandfather among them — as they headed for the Shenandoah Valley where an offensive was underway by the Union Armies of the Shenandoah and West Virginia against the Confederate Army of the Valley.

In late September, Union forces routed the Confederates at the Third Battle of Winchester, Fisher’s Hill and Woodstock — then for 10 days burned out the Valley to deprive the Confederate Army of food, supplies and shelter.

My ancestor’s 6th NYHA reached the Valley toward the end of “the Burning” after long, hard marching through enemy territory, as described by Sgt. Thistleton:

Oct. 1st Started at day-light through Edenburg and New Market and halted near Harrisonburg at 8 P.M. very hard marching it rained all day rendering the pike very slippery made 29 miles we have traveled 123 miles in four and a half days averaging nearly 30 miles a day the regiment lost nearly 100 men on this march who fell out and were captured by guerrillas…

My ancestor Arthur Bull must have weathered the march — papers in his pension file list him as “present” in October.  Union forces, including his unit, were being positioned for the final Shenandoah Valley showdowns.

What battles would Arthur fight in? How would he fare in combat? Would his health hold up? I’m headed back to my research files to find answers. Stay tuned.

© 2014 Molly Charboneau. All rights reserved. 


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Growing family trees one leaf at a time