Guard duty in the Valley

When my great, great grandfather Union Pvt. Arthur Bull arrived in the Shenandoah Valley with his unit in October 1864, the Union command considered the Valley Campaign to be essentially over.

Union cavalry had burned crops, removed livestock and leveled barns and buildings to deprive Confederate forces of food, shelter and supplies — and the Confederates had not advanced.

Aug. 2014: Union encampment on Governors Island, N.Y.
Aug. 2014: Union encampment on Governors Island, N.Y. When not on guard or picket duty in the Shenandoah Valley, my ancestor Arthur Bull and his 6th NY Heavy Artillery unit passed time in camp in early October 1864.  Photo by Molly Charboneau

So in early October, Arthur and his regiment — the 6th New York Heavy Artillery — primarily played a supportive role.

They escorted Union supply trains and encamped between stints of guard or picket duty — forming part of the federal lines that ranged across the Valley to prevent the Confederates from again menacing Washington, D.C.

My ancestor’s comrade-in-arms Sgt. William Thistleton described their activities in his diary and noted the return of their 6th NYHA commander:

Oct. 10th We started at sun-rise this morning with the supply train for Winchester arrived and halted at 8 P.M. one mile south of town. Oct. 11th Started at 7 a.m. and arrived at Middletown at 3 P.M. and camped this is a little town with a fine country around it remained here on the 12th inst.

Oct. 13th Off again at 7 a.m. for front royal about 12 miles distant arrived at 2 p.m. and found the rest of the division here pitched our tents and supposed we were going to stay here for a few days. Compy”I” on Picket about 1 1/2 miles from the camp in the afternoon the cavalry brought in a large drove of cattle, horses, mules, sheep and swine which they had confiscated, our boys had plenty of mutton.

Oct. 14th…Col. J. Howard Kitching joined us today he was home on leave of absence when we left Washington he brought with him 600 men for different regiments of Sheridans Army recruits and convalesents [sic].

While in camp, Union combatants — my ancestor among them — were also busy casting their absentee ballots in advance of the 8 Nov. 1864 presidential election and urging family and friends back home to get to the polls.

Pres. Abraham Lincoln’s re-election was in doubt after the high loss of life during the Overland Campaign with no clear Union victory. But the fall of Atlanta to Union forces in September bolstered the civilian electorate in the North — and Union soldiers’ votes and support would be crucial in the first wartime election since 1812.

On 15 October, wrote Sgt. Thistleton, the 6th NYHA encamped near Cedar Creek about one mile closer to the front and settled in.

We had good time in the camp foraging every day and plenty of chickens and vegetables the men would draw rations and threw them away except coffee and sugar.

All seemed relatively quiet, until one morning when my ancestor’s regiment woke to sharp gunfire from their pickets.

Then suddenly — out of a nebulous fog — Confederate cavalry came charging through their camp.

© 2014 Molly Charboneau. All rights reserved. 


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